A historical look at forced arbitration in America

How a system for resolving disputes between merchants got turned into an aggressive weapon for businesses against consumers

From the CFPB rulemaking. Footnotes and citations deleted except where shown in [brackets]. 

 I.      Background 

Arbitration is a dispute resolution process in which the parties choose one or more neutral third parties to make a final and binding decision resolving the dispute. Parties may include language in their contracts, before any dispute has arisen, committing to resolve future disputes between them in arbitration rather than in court or allowing either party the option to seek resolution of a future dispute in arbitration. Such pre-dispute arbitration agreements – which this proposal generally refers to as “arbitration agreements” – have a long history, primarily in commercial contracts, where companies typically bargain to create agreements tailored to their needs. In 1925, Congress passed what is now known as the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) to require that courts enforce agreements to arbitrate, including those entered into both before and after a dispute has arisen.

In the last few decades, companies have begun inserting arbitration agreements in a wide variety of standard-form contracts, such as in contracts between companies and consumers, employees, and investors. The use of arbitration agreements in such contracts has become a contentious legal and policy issue due to concerns about whether the effects of arbitration agreements are salient to consumers, whether arbitration has proved to be a fair and efficient dispute resolution mechanism, and whether arbitration agreements effectively discourage the filing or resolution of certain claims in court or in arbitration.

In light of these concerns, Congress has taken steps to restrict the use of arbitration agreements in connection with certain consumer financial products and services and other consumer and investor relationships. Most recently, in the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act, Congress prohibited the use of arbitration agreements in connection with mortgage loans, authorized the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to regulate arbitration agreements in contracts
between consumers and securities broker-dealers or investment advisers, and prohibited the use of arbitration agreements in connection with certain whistleblower proceedings.
In addition, and of particular relevance here, Congress directed the Bureau to study the use of arbitration agreements in connection with other, non-mortgage consumer financial products and services and authorized the Bureau to prohibit or restrict the use of such agreements if it finds that such action is in the public interest and for the protection of consumers.
Congress also required that the findings in any such rule be consistent with the Study. The
Bureau solicited input on the appropriate scope, methods, and data sources for the Study in 2012 and released results of its three-year study in March 2015. Part III of this proposed rule summarizes the Bureau’s process for completing the Study and its results.

To place these results in greater context, this Part provides a brief overview of: (1) consumers’ rights under Federal and State laws governing consumer financial products and services; (2) court mechanisms for seeking relief where those rights have been violated, and, in particular, the role of the class  action device in protecting consumers; and (3) the evolution of arbitration agreements and their increasing use in markets for consumer financial products and services.

A.  Consumer Rights Under Federal and State Laws Governing Consumer Financial Products and Services

Companies often provide consumer financial products and services under the terms of a written contract. In addition to being governed by such contracts and the relevant State’s contract law, the relationship between a consumer and a financial service provider is typically governed by consumer protection laws at the State level, Federal level, or both, as well as by other State laws of general applicability (such as tort law). Collectively, these laws create legal rights for consumers and impose duties on the providers of financial products and services that are subject to those laws.

Early Consumer Protection in the Law
Prior to the twentieth century, the law generally embraced the notion of caveat emptor or “buyer beware.” [Caveat emptor assumed that buyer and seller conducted business face to face on roughly equal terms (much as English common law assumed that civil actions generally involved roughly equal parties in direct contact with each other).]

State common law afforded some minimal consumer protections against fraud, usury, or breach of contract, but these common law protections were limited in scope. In the first half of the twentieth century, Congress began passing legislation intended to protect consumers, such as the Wheeler-Lea Act of 1938. The Wheeler-Lea Act amended the Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 (FTC Act) to provide the FTC with the authority to pursue unfair or deceptive acts and practices. These early Federal laws did not provide for private rights of action, meaning that they could only be enforced by the government.

Modern Era of Federal Consumer Financial Protections

In the late 1960s, Congress began passing consumer protection laws focused on financial products, beginning with the Consumer Credit Protection Act (CCPA) in 1968. The CCPA included the Truth in Lending Act (TILA), which imposed disclosure and other requirements on creditors. In contrast to earlier consumer protection laws such as the Wheeler-Lea Act, TILA permits private enforcement by providing consumers with a private right of action, authorizing consumers to pursue claims for actual damages and statutory damages and allowing consumers who prevail in litigation to recover their attorney’s fees and costs.
Congress followed the enactment of TILA with several other consumer financial protection laws, many of which provided private rights of action for at least some statutory violations. For example, in 1970, Congress passed the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), which promotes the accuracy, fairness, and privacy of consumer information contained in the files of consumer reporting agencies, as well as providing consumers access to their own information.

 In 1976, Congress passed ECOA to prohibit creditors from discriminating against applicants with respect to credit transactions. In 1977, Congress passed the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) to promote the fair treatment of consumers who are subject to debt collection activities.
Also in the 1960s, States began passing their own consumer protection statutes modeled on the FTC Act to prohibit unfair and deceptive practices. Unlike the Federal FTC Act, however, these State statutes typically provide for private enforcement. The FTC encouraged the adoption of consumer protection statutes at the State level and worked directly with the Council of State Governments to draft the Uniform Trade Practices Act and Consumer Protection Law, which served as a model for many State consumer protection statutes. Currently, forty-nine of the fifty States and the District of Columbia have State consumer protection statutes modeled on the FTC Act that allow for private rights of action.
Class Actions Pursuant to Federal Consumer Protection Laws

In 1966, shortly before Congress first began passing consumer financial protection statutes, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (Federal Rules or FRCP) were amended to make class actions substantially more available to litigants, including consumers. The class action procedure in the Federal Rules, as discussed in detail in Part II.B below, allows a representative individual to group his or her claims together with those of other, absent individuals in one lawsuit under certain circumstances. Because TILA and the other Federal consumer protection statutes discussed above permitted private rights of action, those private rights of action were enforceable through a class action, unless the statute expressly prohibited it.

Congress calibrated enforcement through private class actions in several of the consumer protection statutes by specifically referencing class actions and adopting statutory damage schemes that are pegged to a percentage of the defendants’ net worth.  For example, when consumers initially sought to bring TILA class actions, a number of courts applying Federal Rule 23 denied motions to certify the class because of the prospect of extremely large damages resulting from the aggregation of a large number of claims for statutory damages. Congress addressed this by amending TILA in 1974 to cap class action damages in such cases to the lesser of 1 percent of the defendant’s assets or $100,000. Congress has twice increased the cap on class action damages in TILA: to $500,000 in 1976 and $1,000,000 in 2010. Many other statutes similarly cap damages in class actions.  Further, the legislative history of other statutes indicates a particular intent to permit class actions given the potential for a small recovery in many consumer finance cases for individual damages. Similarly, many States permit class action litigation to vindicate violations of their versions of the FTC Act. A minority of States expressly prohibit class actions to enforce their FTC Acts.

B.  History and Purpose of the Class Action Procedure
The default rule in United States courts, inherited from England, is that only those who appear as parties to a given case are bound by its outcome. As early as the medieval period, however, English courts recognized that litigating many individual cases regarding the same issue was inefficient for all parties and thus began to permit a single person in a single case to represent a group of people with common interests. English courts later developed a procedure called the “bill of peace” to adjudicate disputes involving common questions and multiple parties in a single action. The process allowed for judgments binding all group members – whether or not they were participants in the suit – and contained most of the basic elements of what is now called class action litigation.

The bill of peace was recognized in early United States case law and ultimately adopted by several State courts and the Federal courts. Nevertheless, the use and impact of that procedure remained relatively limited through the nineteenth and into the twentieth centuries. In 1938, the Federal Rules were adopted to govern civil litigation in Federal court, and Rule 23 established a procedure for class actions. That procedure’s ability to bind absent class members was never clear, however.

That changed in 1966, when Rule 23 was amended to create the class action mechanism that largely persists in the same form to this day. Rule 23 was amended at least in part to promote efficiency in the courts and to provide for compensation of individuals when many are harmed by the same conduct.  The 1966 revisions to Rule 23 prompted similar changes in most States.  As the Supreme Court has since explained, class actions promote efficiency in that “the . . . device saves the resources of both the courts and the parties by permitting an issue potentially affecting every [class member] to be litigated in an economical fashion under Rule 23.” As to small harms, class actions provide a mechanism for compensating individuals where “the amounts at stake for individuals may be so small that separate suits would be impracticable.” Class actions have been brought not only by individuals, but also by companies, including financial institutions.

Class Action Procedure Pursuant to Rule 23
A class action can be filed and maintained under Rule 23 in any case where there is a private right to bring a civil action, unless otherwise prohibited by law. Pursuant to Rule 23(a), a class action must meet all of the following requirements: (1) a class of a size such that joinder of each member as an individual litigant is impracticable; (2) questions of law or fact common to the class; (3) a class representative whose claims or defenses are typical of those of the class; and
(4) that the class representative will adequately represent those interests. The first two prerequisites – numerosity and commonality – focus on the absent or represented class, while the latter two tests – typicality and adequacy – address the desired qualifications of the class representative. Pursuant to Rule 23(b), a class action also must meet one of the following requirements: (1) prosecution of separate actions risks either inconsistent adjudications that would establish incompatible standards of conduct for the defendant or would, as a practical matter, be dispositive of the interests of others; (2) defendants have acted or refused to act on grounds generally applicable to the class; or (3) common questions of law or fact predominate over any individual class member’s questions, and a class action is superior to other methods of adjudication.

These and other requirements of Rule 23 are designed to ensure that class action lawsuits safeguard absent class members’ due process rights because they may be bound by what happens in the case.  Further, the courts may protect the interests of absent class members through the exercise of their substantial supervisory authority over the quality of representation and specific aspects of the litigation. In the typical Federal class action, an individual plaintiff (or sometimes several individual plaintiffs), represented by an attorney, files a lawsuit on behalf of that individual and others similarly situated against a defendant or defendants. Those similarly situated individuals may be a small group (as few as 40 or even less) or as many as millions that are alleged to have suffered the same injury as the individual plaintiff. That individual plaintiff, typically referred to as a named or lead plaintiff, cannot properly proceed with a class action unless the court certifies that the case meets the requirements of Rule 23, including the requirements of Rule 23(a) and (b) discussed above.  If the court does certify that the case can go forward as a class action, potential class members who do not opt out of the class are bound by the eventual outcome of the case. If not certified, the case proceeds only to bind the named plaintiff.

A certified class case proceeds similarly to an individual case, except that the court has an additional responsibility in a class case, pursuant to Rule 23 and the relevant case law, to actively supervise classes and class proceedings and to ensure that the lead plaintiff keeps absent class members informed. Among its tasks, a court must review any attempts to settle or voluntarily dismiss the case on behalf of the class, may reject any settlement agreement if it is not “fair, reasonable and adequate,” and must ensure that the payment of attorney’s fees is “reasonable.”  The court also addresses objections from class members who seek a different outcome to the case (e.g., lower attorney’s fees or a better settlement). These requirements are designed to ensure that all parties to class litigation have their rights protected, including defendants and absent class members.
Developments in Class Action Procedure over Time
Since the 1966 amendments, Rule 23 has generated a significant body of case law as well as significant controversy.  In response, Congress and the Advisory Committee on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (which has been delegated the authority to change Rule 23 under the Rules Enabling Act) have made a series of targeted changes to Rule 23 to calibrate the equities of class plaintiffs and defendants. Meanwhile, the courts have also addressed concerns about Rule 23 in the course of interpreting the rule and determining its application in the context of particular types of cases.

For example, Congress passed the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act (PSLRA) in 1995. Enacted partially in response to concerns about the costs to defendants of litigating class actions, the PSLRA reduced discovery burdens in the early stages of securities class actions.
In 2005, Congress again adjusted the class action rules when it adopted the Class Action Fairness Act (CAFA) in response to concerns about abuses of class action procedure in some State courts. Among other things, CAFA expanded the subject matter jurisdiction of Federal courts to allow them to adjudicate most large class actions. The Advisory Committee also periodically reviews and updates Rule 23. In 1998, the Advisory Committee amended Rule 23 to permit interlocutory appeals of class certification decisions, given the unique importance of the certification decision, which can dramatically change the dynamics of a class action case.  In 2003, the Advisory Committee amended Rule 23 to require courts to define classes that they are certifying, increase the amount of scrutiny that courts must apply to class settlement proposals, and impose additional requirements on class counsel. In 2015, the Advisory Committee further identified several issues that “warrant serious examination” and presented “conceptual sketches” of possible further amendments.

Federal courts have also shaped class action practice through their interpretations of Rule 23.  In the last five years, the Supreme Court has decided several major cases refining class action procedure. In Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Dukes, the Court interpreted the commonality requirement of Rule 23(a)(2) to require that the common question that is the basis for certification be central to the disposition of the case.  In Comcast Corp. v. Behrend, the Court reaffirmed that district courts must undertake a “rigorous analysis” of whether a putative class satisfies the predominance requirements in Rule 23(b)(3) and reinforced that individual damages issues may foreclose class certification altogether.  In Campbell-Ewald Co. v. Gomez, decided this term, the Court held that a defendant cannot moot a class action by offering complete relief to an individual plaintiff before class certification (unless the individual plaintiff agrees to accept that relief).  In Tyson Foods, Inc. v. Bouaphakeo, the Court held that statistical techniques presuming that all class members are identical to the average observed in a sample can be used to establish classwide liability where each class member could have relied on that sample to establish liability had each brought an individual action.  Finally, in a case not yet decided as of the date of this proposal with implications for certain types of class actions, Spokeo, Inc. v. Robins, the Court is considering whether a plaintiff has standing to sue if they allege a violation of a Federal statute that allows for statutory damages – in this case, FCRA – and claim only those damages without making a claim for actual damages.

C. Arbitration and Arbitration Agreements
As described above at the beginning of Part II, arbitration is a dispute resolution process in which the parties choose one or more neutral third parties to make a final and binding decision resolving the dispute.  The typical arbitration agreement provides that the parties shall submit any disputes that may arise between them to arbitration. Arbitration agreements generally give each party to the contract two distinct rights. First, either side can file claims against the other in arbitration and obtain a decision from the arbitrator.  Second, with some exceptions, either side can use the arbitration agreement to require that a dispute proceed in arbitration instead of court.  The typical agreement also specifies an organization called an arbitration administrator. Administrators, which may be for-profit or non-profit organizations, facilitate the selection of an arbitrator to decide the dispute, provide for basic rules of procedure and operations support, and generally administer the arbitration.  Parties usually have very limited rights to appeal from a
decision in arbitration to a court. Most arbitration also provides for limited or streamlined
discovery procedures as compared to those in many court proceedings.
History of Arbitration
The use of arbitration to resolve disputes between parties is not new.  In England, the historical roots of arbitration date to the medieval period, when merchants adopted specialized rules to resolve disputes between them.  English merchants began utilizing arbitration in large numbers during the nineteenth century. However, English courts were hostile towards arbitration, limiting its use through doctrines that rendered certain types of arbitration agreements unenforceable. Arbitration in the United States in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries reflected both traditions:  it was used primarily by merchants, and courts were hostile toward it. Through the early 1920s, U.S. courts often refused to enforce arbitration agreements and awards.

In 1920, New York enacted the first modern arbitration statute in the United States, which strictly limited courts’ power to undermine arbitration decisions and arbitration agreements.  Under that law, if one party to an arbitration agreement refused to proceed to arbitration, the statute permitted the other party to seek a remedy in State court to enforce the arbitration agreement. In 1925, Congress passed the United States Arbitration Act, which was based on the New York arbitration law and later became known as the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA). The FAA remains in force today. Among other things, the FAA makes agreements to arbitrate “valid, irrevocable, and enforceable, save upon such grounds as exist at law or in equity for the revocation of any contract.”
Expansion of Consumer Arbitration and Arbitration Agreements
From the passage of the FAA through the 1970s, arbitration continued to be used in commercial disputes between companies.  Beginning in the 1980s, however, companies began to use arbitration agreements in contracts with consumers, investors, employees, and franchisees that were not negotiated.  By the 1990s, some financial services providers began including arbitration agreements in their form consumer agreements.

One notable feature of these agreements it that they could be used to block class action litigation and often class arbitration as well.  The agreements could block class actions filed in court because, when sued in a class action, companies could use the arbitration agreement to dismiss or stay the class action in favor of arbitration. Yet the agreements often prohibited class arbitration as well, rendering plaintiffs unable to pursue class claims in either litigation or arbitration. More recently, some consumer financial providers themselves have disclosed in their filings with the SEC that they rely on arbitration agreements for the express purpose of shielding themselves from class action liability.

Since the early 1990s, the use of arbitration agreements in consumer financial contracts has become widespread, as shown by Section 2 of the Study (which is discussed in detail in Part III.D below). By the early 2000s, a few consumer financial companies had become heavy users of arbitration proceedings to obtain debt collection judgments against consumers. For example, in 2006 alone, the National Arbitration Forum (NAF) administered 214,000 arbitrations, most of which were consumer debt collection proceedings brought by companies.

Legal Challenges to Arbitration Agreements
The increase in the prevalence of arbitration agreements coincided with various legal challenges to their use in consumer contracts. One set of challenges focused on the use of arbitration agreements in connection with debt collection disputes. In the late 2000s, consumer groups began to criticize the fairness of debt collection arbitration proceedings administered by the NAF, the most widely used arbitration administrator for debt collection.  

In 2008, the San Francisco City Attorney’s office filed a civil action against NAF alleging that NAF was biased in favor of debt collectors.  In 2009, the Minnesota Attorney General sued NAF, alleging an institutional conflict of interest because a group of investors with a 40 percent ownership stake in an affiliate of NAF also had a majority ownership stake in a debt collection firm that brought a number of cases before NAF.   A few days after the filing of the lawsuit, NAF reached a settlement with the Minnesota Attorney General pursuant to which it agreed to stop administering consumer arbitrations completely, although NAF did not admit liability.  Further, a series of class actions filed against NAF were consolidated in a multidistrict litigation and NAF settled those in 2011 by agreeing to suspend $1 billion in pending debt collection arbitrations.  The American Arbitration Association (AAA) likewise announced a moratorium on administering company-filed debt collection arbitrations, articulating significant concerns about due process and fairness to consumers subject to such arbitrations.

A second group of challenges asserted that the invocation of arbitration agreements to block class actions was unlawful. Because the FAA permits challenges to the validity of arbitration agreements on grounds that exist at law or in equity for the revocation of any contract, challengers argued that provisions prohibiting arbitration from proceeding on a class basis – as well as other features of particular arbitration agreements – were unconscionable under State law or otherwise unenforceable. Initially, these challenges yielded conflicting results.
Some courts held that class arbitration waivers were not unconscionable.  Other courts held
that such waivers were unenforceable on unconscionability grounds.  Some of these decisions also held that the FAA did not preempt application of a state’s unconscionability doctrine.

Before 2011, courts were divided on whether arbitration agreements that bar class proceedings were unenforceable because they violated some states’ laws. Then, in 2011, the Supreme Court held in AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion that the FAA preempted application of California’s unconscionability doctrine to the extent it would have precluded enforcement of a consumer arbitration agreement with a provision prohibiting the filing of arbitration on a class basis. The Court concluded that any State law – even one that serves as a general contract law defense – that “[r]equir[es] the availability of classwide arbitration interferes with fundamental attributes of arbitration and thus creates a scheme inconsistent with the FAA.”  The Court reasoned that class arbitration eliminates the principal advantage of arbitration – its informality – and increases risks to defendants (due to the high stakes of mass resolution combined with the absence of multilayered review). As a result of the Court’s holding, parties to litigation could no longer prevent the use of an arbitration agreement to block a class action in court on the ground that a prohibition on class arbitration in the agreement was unconscionable under the relevant State law. The Court further held, in a 2013 decision, that a court may not use the “effective vindication” doctrine – under which a court may invalidate an arbitration agreement that operates to waive a party’s right to pursue statutory remedies – to invalidate a class arbitration waiver on the grounds that the plaintiff’s cost of individually arbitrating the claim exceeds the potential recovery.

Regulatory and Legislative Activity
As arbitration agreements in consumer contracts became more common, Federal regulators, Congress, and State legislatures began to take notice of their impact on the ability of consumers to resolve disputes.  One of the first entities to regulate arbitration agreements was the National Association of Securities Dealers – now known as the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) – the self-regulating body for the securities industry that also administers arbitrations between member companies and their customers. Under FINRA’s Code of Arbitration for customer disputes, FINRA members have been prohibited since 1992 from enforcing an arbitration agreement against any member of a certified or putative class unless and until the class treatment is denied (or a certified class is decertified) or the class member has opted out of the class or class relief.  FINRA’s code also requires this limitation to be set out in any member company’s arbitration agreement. The SEC approved this rule in 1992.  In addition, since 1976, the regulations of the Commodities Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) implementing the Commodity Exchange Act have required that arbitration agreements in commodities contracts be voluntary.  In 2004, the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) – government- sponsored enterprises that purchase a large share of mortgages – ceased purchasing mortgages that contained arbitration agreements.

Since 1975, FTC regulations implementing the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act (MMWA) have barred the use, in consumer warranty agreements, of arbitration agreements that would result in binding decisions.  Some courts in the late 1990s disagreed with the FTC’s interpretation, but the FTC promulgated a final rule in 2015 that “reaffirm[ed] its long-held view” that the MMWA “disfavors, and authorizes the Commission to prohibit, mandatory binding arbitration in warranties.”  In doing so, the FTC noted that the language of the MMWA presupposed that the kinds of informal dispute settlement mechanisms the FTC would permit would not foreclose the filing of a civil action in court.

More recently, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) proposed a rule that would revise the requirements that long-term health care facilities must meet to participate in the Medicare and Medicaid programs.  Among the new proposed rules are a number of requirements for any arbitration agreements between long-term care facilities and residents of those facilities, including that there be a stand-alone agreement signed by the resident; that care at the facility not be conditioned on signing the agreement; and that the agreement be clear in form, manner and language as to what arbitration is and that the resident is waiving a right to judicial relief and that arbitration be conducted by a neutral arbitrator in a location that is convenient to both parties.  Finally, the Department of Education recently announced that it is proposing options in the context of a negotiated rulemaking to limit the impact of arbitration agreements in certain college enrollment agreements, specifically by addressing the use of arbitration agreements to bar students from bringing group claims.

Congress has also taken several steps to address the use of arbitration agreements in different contexts. In 2002, Congress amended Federal law to require that, whenever a motor vehicle franchise contract contains an arbitration agreement, arbitration may be used to resolve the dispute only if, after a dispute arises, all parties to the dispute consent in writing to the use of arbitration.  In 2006, Congress passed the Military Lending Act (MLA), which, among other things, prohibited the use of arbitration provisions in extensions of credit to active servicemembers, their spouses, and certain dependents.  As first implemented by Department of Defense (DoD) regulations in 2007, the MLA applied to “[c]losed-end credit with a term of 91 days or fewer in which the amount financed does not exceed $2,000.” In July 2015, DoD promulgated a final rule that significantly expanded that definition of “consumer credit” to cover closed-end loans that exceeded $2,000 or had terms longer than 91 days as well as various forms of open-end credit, including credit cards.  In 2008, Congress amended federal agriculture law to require, among other things, that livestock or poultry contracts containing arbitration agreements disclose the right of the producer or grower to decline the arbitration agreement; the Department of Agriculture issued a final rule implementing the statute in 2011.

As previously noted, Congress again addressed arbitration agreements in the 2010 Dodd- Frank Act. Dodd-Frank section 1414(a) prohibited the use of arbitration agreements in mortgage contracts, which the Bureau implemented in its Regulation Z. Section 921 of the Act authorized the SEC to issue rules to prohibit or impose conditions or limitations on the use of arbitration agreements by investment advisers. Section 922 of the Act invalidated the use of arbitration agreements in connection with certain whistleblower proceedings.  Finally, and as discussed in greater detail below, section 1028 of the Act required the Bureau to study the use of arbitration agreements in contracts for consumer financial products and services and authorized this rulemaking. The authority of the Bureau and the SEC are similar under the Dodd-Frank Act except that the SEC does not have to complete a study before promulgating a rule. State legislatures have also taken steps to regulate the arbitration process. Several States, most notably California, require arbitration administrators to disclose basic data about consumer arbitrations that take place in the State. States are constrained in their ability to regulate arbitration because the FAA preempts conflicting State law.

Arbitration Today
Today, the AAA is the primary administrator of consumer financial arbitrations. The AAA’s consumer financial arbitrations are governed by the AAA Consumer Arbitration Rules, which includes provisions that, among other things, limit filing and administrative costs for consumers. The AAA also has adopted the AAA Consumer Due Process Protocol, which creates a floor of procedural and substantive protections and affirms that “[a]ll parties are entitled to a fundamentally-fair arbitration process.” A second entity, JAMS, administers consumer financial arbitrations pursuant to the JAMS Streamlined Arbitration Rules & Procedures and the JAMS Consumer Minimum Standards. These administrators’ procedures for arbitration differ in several respects from the procedures found in court, as discussed in Section 4 of the Study and summarized below at Part III.D.

Further, although virtually all arbitration agreements in the consumer financial context expressly preclude arbitration from proceeding on a class basis, the major arbitration administrators do provide procedures for administering class arbitrations and have occasionally administered them in class arbitrations involving providers of consumer financial products and services.  These procedures, which are derived from class action litigation procedures used in court, are described in Section 4.8 of the Study. These class arbitration procedures will only be used by the AAA or JAMS if the arbitration administrator first determines that the arbitration agreement can be construed as permitting class arbitration. These class arbitration procedures are not widely used in consumer financial services disputes: reviewing consumer financial arbitrations pertaining to six product types filed over a period of three years, the Study found only three.  Industry has criticized class arbitration on the ground that it lacks procedural safeguards. For example, class arbitration generally has limited judicial review of arbitrator decisions (for example, on a decision to certify a class or an award of substantial damages).